A review of marine mammal records of Cuba

Amy Danae Whitt, Thomas A. Jefferson, Miriam Blanco, Dagmar Fertl, Deanna Rees

Abstract


There has been very little research on marine mammals in Cuban waters. Much of the information on marine mammals in this region is buried in historical and gray literature. In order to provide a comprehensive account of marine mammal occurrence in Cuba’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), we reviewed and verified 659 published and unpublished sighting, stranding, capture, and tagging records. Eighteen extant species and four genera have confirmed records for Cuban EEZ waters. This includes 17 species of cetaceans (three baleen whales and 14 toothed whales) and one sirenian species. An additional 11 cetacean species and one extant pinniped species have been reported, but not confirmed, or may have the potential to occur in Cuban waters. Historical records of the Caribbean monk seal (Monachus tropicalis) are documented in Cuba; however, this species is now considered extinct. The only two species that are seen regularly and considered common in Cuban nearshore waters are the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).

Keywords


Strandings; Sightings; By-catch; Distribution

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aguayo, C.G. (1954) Notas sobre cetaceos de aguas Cubanas. Circulares del Museo y Biblioteca de Zoología de la Habana 13:1125-1126.

Alayo, D. (1958) Lista de los mamiferos de Cuba (vivientes y extinguidos). Universidad de Oriente, Museo Charles T. Ramsden, Santiago de Cuba.

Allen, J.A. (1880) History of North American pinnipeds: A monograph of the walruses, sea-lions, sea-bears and seals of North America. U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, Miscellaneous Publications 12:1-785.

Allen, J.A. (1887) The West Indian seal (Monachus tropicalis Gray). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2:1-34.

Álvarez Alemán, A. (2011) Capítulo 4.1 Mamíferos Acuáticos, El manatí. Pages 178-185 in Borroto-Páez, R. and Mancina, C.A. (Eds) Mamíferos en Cuba. Impreso por UPC Print, Vasa, Finlandia.

Alvarez-Alemán, A., Beck, C.A. and Powell, J.A. (2010) First report of a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba. Aquatic Mammals 36(2):148-153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1578/AM.36.2.2010.148

Alvarez Alemán, A., Berovides Alvarez, V., and Collazo López, J.L. (2009) Abundancia y distribución de la tonina (Tursiops truncatus, Montagu, 1821) en el área marina protegida “Las Picúas Cayo Cristo”, Villa Clara, Cuba. Revista de Investigaciones Marinas 30(2):117-122.

Anonymous. (1898) A cachalote taken off Cuba: Species of whale weighing 4,000 pounds caught near Matanzas. Press Release. New York: New York Times - 5 February.

Anonymous. (2006) Wayward whales in the Gulf of Mexico. Right Whale News 13(2):8-9.

Baird, R.W., Langelier, K.M. and Stacey, P.J. (1989) First records of false killer whales, Pseudorca crassidens, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 103:368-371.

Balcomb III, K.C. (1981) Ziphiid whales from the Bahamas. Bahamas Naturalist 5(2):19-22.

Barron, G.L. and Jefferson, T.A. (1993) First records of the melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra) from the Gulf of Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 38(1):82-85.

Blanco, M. (2008) Varamientos y avistamientos de ballenas edentadas (Cetacea: Mysticeti) en costas y aguas Cubanas. Revista de Investigaciones Marinas 29(1):81-85.

Blanco, M. (in press) Varamientos y avistamientos de Physeter macrocephalus (Mammalia: Physeteridae) en las costas y aguas de la plataforma cubana. Revista Cubana de Ciencias Biológicas.

Blanco, M. and Olaechea, A. (2000) Morfometría del delfín nariz de botella Tursiops truncatus, en la costa norte de la zona central de Cuba. MarCuba 2000, Congreso de Ciencias del Mar, 5. 4-8 December 2000. La Habana, Cuba.

Blanco, M. and Olaechea, A. (1996) Morfometría del delfín nariz de botella (Tursiops truncatus), en la zona de Varadero, Cuba. Memorias de la Jornada Científica 35 Aniversario. 21-22 December 1996, Acuario Nacional de Cuba, La Habana, Cuba.

Blanco Domínguez, M. (2011) Ballenas y delfines. Pages 186-201 in Borroto-Páez, R. and Mancina, C.A. (Eds) Mamíferos en Cuba. Impreso por UPC Print, Vasa, Finlandia.

Boisseau, O., Leaper, R. and Moscrop, A. (2006) Observations of small cetaceans in the Eastern Caribbean. Paper SC/58/SM24 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, St. Kitts & Nevis. [Available from IWC Secretariat, Cambridge, UK].

Bolaños-Jiménez, J., Fertl, D. and Iñíguez, M. (2008) Killer whale (Orcinus orca) occurrence in Venezuelan waters, 2001-2008. Paper IWC/60/SC/SM8 presented to the IWC, Santiago de Chile, June 2008. [Available from IWC Secretariat, Cambridge, UK].

Bolaños, J. and Villarroel-Marin, A. (2003) Three new records of cetacean species for Venezuelan waters. Caribbean Journal of Science 39(2):230-232.

Caldwell, D.K. (1961) Observations on an unidentified dolphin of the family Delphinidae in Jamaican waters. Caribbean Journal of Science 1(4):133-134.

Caldwell, D.K. (1964) A new record for the beaked whale, Mesoplodon europaeus, from Jamaica. Caribbean Journal of Science 4(4):547.

Caldwell, D.K. and Erdman, D.S. (1963) The pilot whale in the

West Indies. Journal of Mammalogy 44(1):113-115.

Caldwell, D.K. and Caldwell, M.C. (1971a) Beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris, in the Bahamas. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 34(2):157-160.

Caldwell, D.K. and Caldwell, M.C. (1971b) The pygmy killer whale, Feresa attenuata, in the western Atlantic, with a summary of world records. Journal of Mammalogy 52(1):206-209.

Caldwell, D.K. and Caldwell, M.C. (1975) Dolphin and small whale fisheries of the Caribbean and West Indies: Occurrence, history, and catch statistics - with special reference to the Lesser Antillean Island of St. Vincent. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32(7):1105-1110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/f75-132

Caldwell, D.K. and Caldwell, M.C. (1977) The distribution, migrations, and relative abundance of Risso’s dolphins, Grampus griseus, in the western North Atlantic. Prepared for Naval Ocean Systems, San Diego, California by Biological Systems, Inc., St. Augustine, Florida.

Caldwell, D.K., Caldwell, M.C. and Walker, R.V. (1976) First records for Fraser’s dolphin (Lagenodephis hosei) in the Atlantic and the melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra) in the western Atlantic. Cetology 25:1-4.

Caldwell, D.K., Rathjen, W.F. and Caldwell, M.C. (1971a) Cuvier’s beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris, from Barbados. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 70(1):52-53.

Caldwell, D.K., Caldwell, M.C., Rathjen, W.F. and Sullivan, J.R. (1971b) Cetaceans from the Lesser Antillean island of St. Vincent. Fishery Bulletin 69(2):303-312.

Campbell, D.G. (1978) The Ephemeral Islands: A Natural History of the Bahamas. Macmillan, London, England.

Cardona-Maldonado, M.A. and Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. (1999) Pygmy and dwarf sperm whales in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, with a review of Kogia in the Caribbean. Caribbean Journal of Science 35(1-2):29-37.

CETAP (Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program). (1982) Characterization of marine mammals and turtles in the Mid- and North Atlantic areas of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf- Final report of the Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program. Prepared for U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Washington, D.C. by Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program, University of Rhode Island, Graduate School of Oceanography, Kingston, Rhode Island. Contract AA551-CT8-48.

Clark, C.W. (1995) Annex M. Matters arising out of the discussion of blue whales: Annex M1. Application of US Navy underwater hydrophone arrays for scientific research on whales. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 45:210-212.

Clark, C.W. and Gagnon, G.J. (2004) Low-frequency vocal behaviors of baleen whales in the North Atlantic: Insights from Integrated Undersea Surveillance System detections, locations, and tracking from 1992 to 1996. U.S. Navy Journal of Underwater Acoustics 52(3).

Claro, R., Reshetnikov, Y.S. and Alcolado, P.M. (2002) Physical attributes of coastal Cuba. Pages 1-20 in Claro, R., Parenti, L.R. and Lindeman, K.C. (Eds) Ecology of the Marine Fishes of Cuba. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

Cubillas, V. (1970) Una captura insólita en Cuba. Mar y Pesca 65: 32-37.

Cuní, L.A. (1918) Contribución al estudio de mamíferos acuáticos observados en las costas de Cuba. Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de Historia Natural “Felipe Poey” A:83-123.

de la Osa, J.A. and Guma, J.G. (1971) Pilot whales captured off coast of Cuba. Translated in Pages 78-79 in Joint Publications Research Service, ed. Translations on Latin America 634.

de la Torre, C. (1907) El cachalote--Catodon macrocephalus. Anales de la Academia de Ciencias de la Habana 43:368-372.

de la Torre, D.C. (1887) Un cetáceo. Anales de la Academia de Ciencias Médicas, Físicas y Naturales de la Habana 23:431-433.

Debrot, A.O. (1998) New cetacean records for Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. Caribbean Journal of Science 34(1-2):168-170.

Debrot, A.O., De Meyer, J.A. and Dezentjé, P.J.E. (1998) Additional records and a review of the cetacean fauna of the Leeward Dutch Antilles. Caribbean Journal of Science 34(3-4):204-210.

Díaz Del Castillo, B. (1912) Works issued by the Hakluyt Society. The conquest of New Spain. Series 2. Volume 3. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

Domning, D.P. (Ed) (1990) Distribution and status of manatees in Cuba. Sirenews 13.

Domning, D.P. (Ed) (1987) Cuba. SireNews 8.

Elliott, H.W. (1884) The monk seal of the West Indies, Monachus tropicalis Gray. Science 3:752-753. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.ns-3.72.752

Erdman, D.S. (1970) Marine mammals from Puerto Rico to Antigua. Journal of Mammalogy 51(3):636-639.

Erdman, D.S., Harms, J. and Flores, M.M. (1973) Cetacean records from the northeastern Caribbean region. Cetology 17:1-14.

Espinosa, J., and Orta, J. (2007) Biota Marina. Pages 72-141 in González, H.A. (Ed) Biodiversidad de Cuba, Ciudad de Guatemala.

Estrada, A.R. and Ferrer, L.T. (1987) Distribución del manatí antillano, Trichechus manatus (Mammalia: Sirenia), en Cuba. I. Región occidental. Poeyana Instituto de Zoología Academia de Ciencias de Cuba 354:1-12.

Fairbairn, P.W. and Haynes, A.M. (1982) Jamaican surveys of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), sea turtles (families Cheloniidae and Dermochelydae) and booby terns (family Laridae). FAO Fisheries Report 278:289-295.

Fertl, D., Schiro, A.J., Regan, G.T., Beck, C.A., Adimey, N., Price-May, L., Amos, A., Worthy G.A.J. and Crossland, R. (2005) Manatee occurrence in the northern Gulf of Mexico, west of Florida. Gulf and Caribbean Research 17:69-94.

Firestone, J., S. B. Lyons, C. Wang and J. J. Corbett (2008) Statistical modeling of North Atlantic right whale migration along the mid-Atlantic region of the eastern seaboard of the United States. Biological Conservation 141: 221-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2007.09.024

Fisher, S.J. and Reeves, R.R. (2005) The global trade in live cetaceans: Implications for conservation. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy 8:315-340.

Fritts, T.H., Irvine, A.B., Jennings, R.D., Collum, L.A., Hoffman, W. and McGehee, M.A. (1983) Turtles, birds, and mammals in the northern Gulf of Mexico and nearby Atlantic waters. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service FWS/OBS-82/65: 455 pp. [Available from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., USA].

Fulling, G.L. and Clapham, P. (2004) Cruise report, NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter cruise GU-04-01(26), MONAH project humpback whale survey, Silver Bank. Unpublished cruise report. [Available from NMFS, Pascagoula, Mississippi and Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA].

Gambell, R. (1985) Fin whale Balaenoptera physalus (Linneaus, 1758). Pages 171-192 in Ridgway, S.H. and Harrison, R. (Eds) Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 3: The Sirenians and Baleen Whales. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Garrison, L.P. and Richards, P.M. (2004) Estimated bycatch of marine mammals and turtles in the U.S. Atlantic pelagic longline fleet during 2003. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-527:1-57. [PDF available from http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/PDFdocs/PLL_bycatchTechMem527.pdf].

GDAIS (General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems) (2004) The global maritime boundaries database: August 2004 Edition. from CD.

Gero, S. and Whitehead, H. (2006) Opportunistic sightings of small cetaceans off the leeward shore of the Commonwealth of Dominica. Report SC/58/SM1 presented to the Small Cetcean Subcommittee at the 58th annual meeting of the International Whaling Commission. St. Kitts and Nevis, 16-20 June 2006. [Available from IWC Secretariat, Cambridge, UK].

González, O., Ortiz, M., Lalana, R. and Varela, C. (2001) Los crustáceos ectoparásitos de una ballena (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Balaenopteridae), encallada en la costa norte de Cuba. Revista de Investigaciones Marinas 23(1):67-68.

Gordon, J., Moscrop, A., Carlson, C., Ingram, S., Leaper, R., Matthews, J. and Young, K. (1998) Distribution, movements and residency of sperm whales off the Commonwealth of Dominica, eastern Caribbean: Implications for the development and regulation of the local whalewatching industry. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 48:551-557.

GTMO (U.S. Naval Station Guantánamo Bay). 1996. Guantanamo Bay manatee population assessment, July 1996. [Available from U.S. Naval Station Guantánamo Bay, Guantánamo, Cuba].

Hain, J.H.W., Ratnaswamy, M.J., Kenney, R.D. and Winn, H.E. (1992) The fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus, in waters of the northeastern United States continental shelf. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 42:653-669.

Harmer, S.F. (1923) Cervical vertebrae of a gigantic blue whale from Panama. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1923:1085-1089.

Hersh, S.L. and Odell, D.K. (1986) Mass stranding of Fraser’s dolphin, Lagenodelphis hosei, in the western North Atlantic. Marine Mammal Science 2(1):73-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1986.tb00029.x

Howe, B. (1999) Creature feature: Antillean manatees can be seen here. Guantánamo Bay Gazette (Friday, 23 July):4.

Hoyt, E. (1999) The potential of whale watching in the Caribbean: 1999+. The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Bath, England, UK. [PDF available from http://www.wdcs-de.org/docs/Caribbean.pdf].

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) (2011) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. Downloaded on 20 March 2012. [Available from www.iucnredlist.org].

Jefferson, T.A. and Lynn, S.K. (1994) Marine mammal sightings in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, summer 1991. Caribbean Journal of Science 30(1-2):83-89.

Jefferson, T.A. and Schiro, A.J. (1997) Distribution of cetaceans in the offshore Gulf of Mexico. Mammal Review 27(1):27-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2907.1997.tb00371.x

Jefferson, T.A. and Curry, B.E. (2003). Stenella clymene. Mammalian Species 726:1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1644/726

Jefferson, T.A., Odell, D.K. and Prunier, K.T. (1995) Notes on the biology of the Clymene dolphin (Stenella clymene) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Marine Mammal Science 11(4):564-573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1995.tb00679.x

Jefferson, T.A., Webber, M.A. and Pitman, R.L. (2008) Marine Mammals of the World: A Comprehensive Guide to Their Identification. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Jefferson, T.A., Fertl, D., Bolaños-Jiménez, J. and Zerbini, A.N. (2009) Distribution of common dolphins (Delphinus spp.) in the western Atlantic Ocean: A critical re-examination. Marine Biology 156:1109-1124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-009-1152-y

Jérémie, S. (2005) Synthesis of cetaceans off the island of Martinique, French West Indies. Reference paper UNEP(DEC)/CAR WG.27/REF.7 presented at the United Nations Environment Programme Regional Workshop of Experts on the Development of the Marine Mammal Action Plan for the Wider Caribbean Region, United Nations Environment Programme, Bridgetown, Barbados,18-21 July 2005. [PDF available from http://www.cep.unep.org/pubs/meetingreports/MMAP/].

Jérémie, S., Gannier, A., Bourreau, S. and Nicolas, J-C. (2006) Cetaceans of Martinique Island (Lesser Antilles): Occurrence and distribution obtained from a small boat dedicated survey. Paper SC/58/SM23 presented to the Scientific Committee, 58th Annual Meeting of the International Whaling Commission, St. Kitts & Nevis, 16-20 June 2006. [PDF available from http://www.iwcoffice.org/_documents/sci_com/SC58docs/SC-58-SM23.pdf].

Jochens, A., Biggs, D., Benoit-Bird, K., Engelhardt, D., Gordon, J., Hu, C., Jaque, N., Johnson, M., Leben, R., Mate, B., Miller, P., Ortega-Ortiz, J., Thode, A., Tyack, P. and Würsig, B. (2008) Sperm whale seismic study in the Gulf of Mexico: Synthesis report. Prepared for U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region, New Orleans, Louisiana by Texas A&M University, Department of Oceanography, College Station, Texas, USA. [Available from Minerals Management Service, New Orleans, LA, USA].

Kato, H. (2002) Bryde’s whales Balaenoptera edeni and B. brydei. Pages 171-176 in Perrin, W.F., Würsig, B. and Thewissen, J.G.M. (Eds) Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Katona, S.K. and Beard, J.A. (1991) Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 30(2):307-321.

Katona, S.K., Beard, J.A., Girton, P.E. and Wenzel, F. (1988). Killer whales (Orcinus orca) from the Bay of Fundy to the Equator, including the Gulf of Mexico. Rit Fiskideildar XI:205-224.

Kenney, R.D. (2001) Anomalous 1992 spring and summer right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) distributions in the Gulf of Maine. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue 2):209-223.

Kenney, R.D. and Winn, H.E. (1986) Cetacean high-use habitats of the northeast United States continental shelf. Fishery Bulletin 84(2):345-357.

Kenyon, K.W. (1977) Caribbean monk seal extinct. Journal of Mammalogy 58(1):97-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1379738

Knowlton, A.R., Ring, J.B. and Russell, B. (2002) Right whale sightings and survey effort in the Mid Atlantic Region: Migratory corridor, time frame, and proximity to port entrances. Report submitted to the NMFS Ship Strike Working Group, Silver Spring, Maryland. [PDF available from http://www.nero.noaa.gov/shipstrike/ssr/midatanticreportrFINAL.pdf].

Kruse, S., Caldwell, D.K. and Caldwell, M.C. (1999) Risso’s dolphin Grampus griseus (G. Cuvier, 1812). Pages 183-212 in Ridgway, S.H. and Harrison, R. (Eds) Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Leatherwood, S., Caldwell, D.K. and Winn, H.E. (1976) Whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the western North Atlantic: A guide to their identification. NOAA Technical Report NMFS CIRC-396.

Leatherwood, S., Jefferson, T.A., Norris, J.C., Stevens, W.E., Hansen, L.J. and Mullin, K.D. (1993) Occurrence and sounds of Fraser’s dolphins (Lagenodelphis hosei) in the Gulf of Mexico. Texas Journal of Science 45(4):349-354.

Lefebvre, L.W., Marmontel, M., Reid, J.P., Rathbun, G.B. and Domning, D.P. (2001) Status and biogeography of the West Indian manatee. Pages 425-474 in Woods, C.A. and Sergile, F.E. (Eds) Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, 2d ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

León, H. and Aquayo, C.G. (1945) Excursión botánica a la bahía de Nuevas Grandes y hallazgo de una especie de cachalote nueva para la Fauna cubana. Contribuciones Ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural del Colegio “De La Salle” 5:1-7.

Lima, O. 1989. Ballena de Boca de Galafre. Mar y Pesca. 286:17-19.

López, N., Fernández, G., López, R., Blanco, M., Guevara, C., Sánchez, L., Cruz, D., and Sánchez, L. (2010) Los delfines y los ecosistemas costeros cubanos: perspectiva frente al cambio climático. Pages 168-175 in Hernández-Zanuy, A., and Alcolado, P.M. (Eds) La Biodiversidad en ecosistemas marinos y costeros del litoral de Iberoamérica y el cambio climático: I. Memorias del Primer Taller de la Red CYTED BIODIVMAR. Instituto de Oceanología, La Habana, Cuba.

López, N., Blanco, M., López, R., Guevara, C. and Cruz, D. (in press) Distribución, abundancia y composición etaria de los grupos de Tursiops truncatus (Cetacea: Delphinidae) en la costa norte de la provincia de Matanzas, Cuba. Revista Cubana de Ciencias Biológicas.

MacLeod, C., Perrin, W.F., Pitman, R., Barlow, J., Balance, L., D’Amico, A., Gerrodette, T., Joyce, G., Mullin, K.D., Palka, D.L. and Waring, G.T. (2006) Known and inferred distributions of beaked whale species (Cetacea: Ziphiidae). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 7(3):271-286.

MacLeod, C.D. and Mitchell, G. (2006) Key areas for beaked whales worldwide. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 7(3):309-322.

MacLeod, C.D., Hauser, N. and Peckham, H. (2004) Diversity, relative density and structure of the cetacean community in summer months east of Great Abaco, Bahamas. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 84:469-474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315404009476h

Mattila, D.K. and Clapham, P.J. (1989) Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, and other cetaceans on Virgin Bank and in the northern Leeward Islands, 1985 and 1986. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:2201-2211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z89-31

Mattila, D.K., Clapham, P.J., Katona, S.K. and Stone, G.S. (1989) Population composition of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, on Silver Bank, 1984. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:281-285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z89-041

Mattila, D.K., Clapham, P.J., Vásquez, O. and Bowman, R.S. (1994) Occurrence, population composition, and habitat use of humpback whales in Samana Bay, Dominican Republic. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:1898-1907 http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z94-258.

McAuslan, F., Norman, M. and Lazarus, S. (2003) The Rough Guide to Cuba. Rough Guides, London, England, UK.

Mead, J.G. (1977) Records of sei and Bryde’s whales from the Atlantic coast of the United States, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean. Reports of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue 1):113-116.

Mead, J.G. (1989) Beaked whales of the genus-Mesoplodon. Pages 349-430 in Ridgway, S.H. and Harrison, R. (Eds) Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 4: River Dolphins and the Larger Toothed Whales. Academic Press, London, England, UK.

Mead, J.G., Walker, W.A., Potter, C.W. and McLellan, W.A. (1986) Further observations on the life history of the melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra. Unpublished manuscript. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA.

Mellinger, D.K., Nieukirk, S.L., Matsumoto, H., Heimlich, S.L., Dziak, R.P., Haxel, J., Fowler, M., Meinig, C. and Miller, H.V. (2007) Seasonal occurrence of North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) vocalizations at two sites on the Scotian Shelf. Marine Mammal Science 23(4):856–867. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2007.00144.x

Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. (1989) Zoogeography of marine mammals in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Master’s thesis. University of Rhode Island. Kingston, Rhode Island. 448 pp.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. (1996) Marine mammal strandings in Puerto Rico and the United States and British Virgin Islands. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Puerto Rico. Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. 247 pp.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. (1998) Zoogeography of cetaceans off Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Caribbean Journal of Science 34(3-4):173-190.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. and Odell, D.K. (2001) Tropical and subtropical records of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) dispel the myth of extant Caribbean monk seals (Monachus tropicalis). Bulletin of Marine Science 68(1):47-58.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. and Haddow, P. (2002) Wandering hooded seals. Science 295:627-628. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.295.5555.627

Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A., Rodríguez-López, M.A., Perez-Zayas, J.J., Montoya-Ospina, R.A. and Williams, Jr., E.H. (1998) First record of the melonhead whale (Peponocephala electra) for Puerto Rico. Mammalia 62(3):452-457.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A., Toyos-González, G.M., Pérez-Padilla, J., Rodríguez-López, M.A. and Overing, J. (1999a) Mass stranding of pygmy killer whales (Feresa attenuata) in the British Virgin Islands. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 80:759-760.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A., Montoya-Ospina, R.A., PérezZayas, J.J., Rodríguez-López, M.A. and Williams, Jr., E.H. (1999b) New records of Fraser’s dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei) for the Caribbean. Aquatic Mammals 25(1):15-19.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A., Swartz, S.L., Martínez, A., Burks, C.M. and Watkins, W.A. (2003) First records of the pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) for the Puerto Rican Bank, with a review of the species in the Caribbean. Caribbean Journal of Science 39(3):381-392.

Mitchell, E. (1975) Porpoise, Dolphin and Small Whale Fisheries of the World: Status and Problems. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, Switzerland.

Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (1991) Winter records of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata acutorostrata Lacépède 1804) in the southern North Atlantic. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 41:455-457.

Miyazaki, N. and Perrin, W.F. (1994) Rough-toothed dolphin-Steno bredanensis (Lesson, 1828). Pages 1-21 in Ridgway, S.H. and Harrison, R. (Eds) Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 5: The First Book of Dolphins. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Montolio Fernández, M. (2008) Stranding of dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima in Jaimanitas, at the west of Havana City. Reporte del Acuario Nacional de Cuba. La Habana, Cuba. 3 pp. [PDF available from http://www.acuarionacional.cu/exhibiciones/imagenes/varamientoi.pdf].

Moore, J.C. (1953) Distribution of marine mammals to Florida waters. American Midland Naturalist 49:117-158.

Moore, J.C. and Clark, E. (1963) Discovery of right whales in the Gulf of Mexico. Science 141:269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.141.3577.269

Moore, K.E., Watkins, W.A. and Tyack, P.L. (1993) Pattern similarity in shared codas from sperm whales (Physeter catodon). Marine Mammal Science 9(1):1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1993.tb00421.x

Morison, S.E. (1942) Chapter XXXII: Cuba and Jamaica. Pages 445-453 in Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. Little, Brown, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Mörzer Bruyns, W.F.J. (1969) Sight records and notes on the false killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens (Owen, 1846). Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen 17(4):351-356.

Mullin, K.D., Jefferson, T.A., Hansen, L.J. and Hoggard, W. (1994) First sightings of melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) in the Gulf of Mexico. Marine Mammal Science 10(3):342-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1994.tb00488.x

Mullin, K.D., Foley, K.M., Martinez, A. and Burks, C. (2001) NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter cruise GU-01-01 (11, Leg 3), 16 March - 3 April 2001: A study of sperm whales in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico. Unpublished cruise report. [Available from NMFS, Pascagoula, Mississippi, USA].

NMFS-SEFSC (National Marine Fisheries Service-Southeast Fisheries Science Center). (1995) Oregon II cruise 215 (95-01) 26 January-11 March 1995. Unpublished cruise report. [Available from NMFS, Pascagoula, Mississippi, USA].

NMFS-SEFSC (National Marine Fisheries Service-Southeast Fisheries Science Center). (2004) Pelagic Observer Program data: 2000-2004. [Available from http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/observerdata.jsp].

NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service). (2008) Endangered and threatened species: Final rule to remove the Caribbean monk seal from the federal list of endangered and threatened wildlife. Federal Register 73(209):63901-63907.

NOAA Fisheries Service. (2008) High numbers of right whales seen in Gulf of Maine: NOAA researchers identify wintering ground and potential breeding ground. Press Release. 31 December. Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA. [Available from http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-01/nnmf-hno010209.php].

O’Sullivan, S. and Mullin, K.D. (1997) Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Marine Mammal Science 13:141-147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1997.tb00618.x

Odell, D.K. and McClune, K.M. (1999) False killer whale Pseudorca crassidens (Owen, 1846). Pages 213-243 in Ridgway, S.H. and Harrison, R. (Eds) Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Ortega-Ortiz, J.G. (2002) Multiscale analysis of cetacean distribution in the Gulf of Mexico. Ph.D. dissertation. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA. 170 pp.

Ortiz, M. (1984) Hallazgo de un anfípodo ectoparásito en una ballena en aguas Cubanas. Revista de Investigaciones Marinas 5:95-96.

Ortíz, M., Lalana-R, R., and Torres-Fundora, O. (1992) Un nuevo género y una nueva especie de copépodo harpacticoida asociada al manatí Trichechus manatus en aguas Cubanas. Revista de Investigaciones Marinas 13:117-127.

Panigada, S., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Panigada, M.Z., Airoldi, S., Borsani, J.F. and Jahoda, M. (2005) Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) summering in the Ligurian Sea: Distribution, encounter rate, mean group size and relation to physiographic variables. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 7(2):137-145.

Parente, C.L., Vergara-Parente, J.E. and Pinto de Lima, R. (2004) Strandings of Antillean manatees, Trichechus manatus manatus, in northeastern Brazil. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 3(1):69-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.5597/lajam00050

Pérez-Cao, H. (2004) Abundancia y distribución de la tonina Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821) en dos areas del Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba. Master’s thesis. Universidad de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba. 96 pp.

Perez-Cao, H., López, N., Blanco, M., Lio, V. and González-Sansón, G. (2009) Abundancia y distribución del delfín (Tursiops truncatus, Montagu, 1821) en la costa norte de la Provincia Matanzas, Cuba. Revista de Investigaciones Marinas 30(1):55-61.

Perrin, W.F. and Hohn, A.A. (1994) Pantropical spotted dolphin--Stenella attenuata. Pages 71-98 in Ridgway, S.H. and Harrison, R. (Eds) Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 5: The First Book of Dolphins. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Perrin, W.F., Mitchell, E.D., Mead, J.G., Caldwell, D.K. and van Bree, P.J.H. (1981) Stenella clymene, a rediscovered tropical dolphin of the Atlantic. Journal of Mammalogy 62(3):583-598. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1380405

Perrin, W.F., Mitchell, E.D., Mead, J.G., Caldwell, D.K., Caldwell, M.C., van Bree, P.J.H. and Dawbin, W.H. (1987) Revision of the spotted dolphins, Stenella spp. Marine Mammal Science 3(2):99-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1987.tb00158.x

Perryman, W.L., Au, D.W.K., Leatherwood, S. and Jefferson, T.A. (1994) Melon-headed whale--Peponocephala electra (Gray, 1846). Pages 363-386 in Ridgway, S.H. and Harrison, R. (Eds) Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 5: The First Book of Dolphins. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Powell, J.A., Belitsky, D.W. and Rathbun, G.B. (1981) Status of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico. Journal of Mammalogy 62(3):642-646. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1380417

Rankin, J.J. (1953) First record of the rare beaked whale, Mesoplodon europaeus, Gervais, from the West Indies. Nature 172:873-874. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/172873b0.

Rankin, J.J. (1956) The structure of the skull of the beaked whale, Mesoplodon gervaisi Deslongchamps. Journal of Morphology 99(2):329-357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1050990205

Reeves, R.R. and Mitchell, E. (1988) Killer whale sightings and takes by American pelagic whalers in the North Atlantic. Rit Fiskideildar 11:7-23.

Reeves, R.R., Swartz, S.L., Wetmore, S.E. and Clapham, P.J. (2001) Historical occurrence and distribution of humpback whales in the eastern and southern Caribbean Sea, based on data from American whaling logbooks. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3(2):117-129.

Reeves, R.R., Smith, T.D., Josephson, E.A., Clapham, P.J. and Woolmer, G. (2004) Historical observations of humpback and blue whales in the North Atlantic Ocean: Clues to migratory routes and possibly additional feeding grounds. Marine Mammal Science 20(4):774-786. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2004.tb01192.x

Rendell, L.E. and Whitehead, H. (2003) Vocal clans in sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 270:225-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2002.2239

Rice, D.W. (1998) Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.

Rinaldi, C., Rinaldi R. and Sahagian, P. (2006) Report of surveys conducted on small cetaceans off Guadeloupe 1998 to 2005. Working document SC/58/SM17 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee. St. Kitts and Nevis. [Available from IWC Secretariat, Cambridge, UK].

Roca, E. and Sedaghatkish, G. (Eds) 1998. Rapid ecological assessment U.S. Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. The Nature Conservancy, Washington, D.C., USA.

Roden, C.L. and Mullin, K.D. (2000) Sightings of cetaceans in the northern Caribbean Sea and adjacent waters, winter 1995. Caribbean Journal of Science 36(3-4):280-288.

Rodríguez-López, M.A. and Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. (1999) A stranded pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata) in Puerto Rico. Aquatic Mammals 25(2):119-121.

Romero, A., Agudo, A.I., Green, S.M. and Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. (2001) Cetaceans of Venezuela: Their distribution and conservation status. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 151:1-60.

Rosario-Delestre, R.J., Rodríguez-López, M.A., Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. and Mead, J.G. (1999) New records of beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp.) for the Caribbean. Caribbean Journal of Science 35(1-2):144-148.

Sanders, I.M., Barrios-Santiago, J.C. and Appeldoorn, R.S. (2005) Distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales off western Puerto Rico during 1995-1997. Caribbean Journal of Science 41(1):101-107.

Santos Mariño, J.A. (2007) Considerations about the status of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Cuba. Sirenews 47:21-22.

Scaramuzza, L.C. (1943) Captura de un cachalote en la costa sur de Cuba. Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de Historia Natural 17:141-142.

Schmidly, D.J. (1981) Marine mammals of the southeastern United States coast and the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Department of Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Report FWS/OBS-80/41: 163 pp. [Available from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., USA].

Schmidly, D.J., Martin, C.O. and Collins, G.F. (1972) First

occurrence of a black right whale (Balaena glacialis) along the Texas coast. Southwestern Naturalist 17(2):214-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3670386

Schoenfeld, P. (2005). Creature feature: West Indian manatee. Guantánamo Bay Gazette 62(6):5.

Self-Sullivan, C. and Mignucci-Giannoni, A. (2005) Trichechus manatus manatus. IUCN Sirenia Specialist Group assessment, 2005. Report prepared for the IUCN SCC (The World Conservation Union Species Survival Commission) Red List Authority. Geneva, Switzerland.

Silva, A. (1977) Observaciones sobre la conducta alimentaria del delfín Tursiops truncatus. Miscelánea Zoológica 6:1-2.

Smith, T.D., Allen, J., Clapham, P.J., Hammond, P.S., Katona, S., Larsen, F., Lien, J., Mattila, D., Palsbøll, P.J., Sigurjónsson, J., Stevick, P.T. and Øien, N. (1999) An ocean-basin-wide mark-recapture study of the North Atlantic humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Marine Mammal Science 15(1):1-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1999.tb00779.x

Stevick, P.T., Øien, N. and Mattila, D.K. (1998) Migration of a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) between Norway and the West Indies. Marine Mammal Science 14(1):162-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1998.tb00701.x

Stevick, P.T., Allen, J., Clapham, P.J., Friday, N., Katona, S.K., Larsen, F., Lien, J., Mattila, D.K., Palsbøll, P.J., Sigurjónsson, J., Smith, T.D., Øien, N. and Hammond, P.S. (2003) North Atlantic humpback whale abundance and rate of increase four decades after protection from whaling. Marine Ecology Progress Series 258:263-273. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps258263

Swartz, S.L. and Burks, C. (2000) Cruise results: Windwards humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) survey, NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter cruise GU-00-01 9 February to 3 April 2000. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-438:1-31.

Taruski, A.G. and Winn, H.E. (1976) Winter sightings of odontocetes in the West Indies. Cetology 22:1-12.

Timm, R.M., Salazar, R.M. and Peterson, A.T. (1997) Historical distribution of the extinct tropical seal, Monachus tropicalis (Carnivora: Phocidae). Conservation Biology 11(2):549-551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.96035.x

Townsend, C.H. (1906) Capture of the West Indian seal (Monachus tropicalis) at Key West, Florida. Science 23(589):583. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.23.589.583

Townsend, C.H. (1935) The distribution of certain whales as shown by logbook records of American whaleships. Zoologica 19(1):3-50.

True, F.W. (1889) Contributions to the natural history of the cetaceans, a review of the family Delphinidae. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 36:1-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.03629236.36.1

UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (1995) Regional management plan for the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus. Caribbean Environment Programme Technical Report No. 35. United Nations Environment Program, Kingston, Jamaica. [PDF available from http://www.cep.unep.org/pubs/techreports/tr35en/index.html].

van Bree, P.J.H. (1975) Preliminary list of the cetaceans of the southern Caribbean. Studies on the Fauna of Curaçao and Other Caribbean Islands 160:79-87.

van Bree, P.J.H., Creutzberg, F. and Kristensen, I. (1973) On strandings of Cuvier’s whale, Ziphius cavirostris G. Cuvier, 1823, on the Lesser Antillean Islands of Sint Maarten and Curacao. Lutra 15:6-8.

Van Waerebeek, K., Sequeira, M., Williamson, C., Paulo Sanino, G., Gallego, P. and Carmo, P. (2006) Live-captures of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus and unassessed bycatch in Cuban waters: Evidence of sustainability found wanting. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 5(1):39-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.5597/lajam00090

Varona, L.S. (1964) Un cráneo de Ziphius cavirostris del Sur de Isla de Pinos. Poeyana Instituto de Biologia A(4):1-3.

Varona, L.S. (1965) Balaenoptera borealis Lesson (Mammalia:Cetacea) capturada en Cuba. Poeyana Instituto de Biología 7A:1-4.

Varona, L.S. (1970) Morfología externa y caracteres craneales de un macho adulto de Mesoplodon europaeus (Cetacea: Ziphiidae). Poeyana Instituto de Biología A(69):1-17.

Varona, L.S. (1973) Catálogo de los Mamíferos Vivientes y Extinguidos de las Antillas. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Habana, Cuba.

Varona, L.S. (1980) Mamíferos de Cuba. Editorial Gente Nueva, Habana, Cuba.

Varona, L.S. (1985) Modificaciones ontogénicas y dimorfismo sexual en Mesoplodon gervaisi (Cetacea; Ziphiidae). Caribbean Journal of Science 21(1-2):27-37.

Varona, L.S. (2002) Mamíferos acuáticos de Cuba. Editorial Gente Nueva, Habana, Cuba.

Ward, N., Moscrop, A. and Carlson, C. (2001) Elements for the development of a marine mammal action plan for the Wider Caribbean: A review of marine mammal distribution. Havana, Cuba: United Nations Environment Programme. 77.

Watkins, W.A. and Moore, K.E. (1982) An underwater acoustic survey for sperm whales (Physeter catodon) and other cetaceans in the southeast Caribbean. Cetology 46:1-7.

Watkins, W.A., Daher, M.A., Fristrup, K. and Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. (1994) Fishing and acoustic behavior of Fraser’s dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei) near Dominica, southeast Caribbean. Caribbean Journal of Science 30(1-2):76-82.

Watkins, W.A., Daher, M.A., Samuels, A. and Gannon, D.P. (1997) Observations of Peponocephala electra, the melon-headed whale, in the southeastern Caribbean. Caribbean Journal of Science 33(1-2):34-40.

Watkins, W.A., Daher, M.A., Fristrup, K.M., Howald, T.J. and Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. (1993) Sperm whales tagged with transponders and tracked underwater by sonar. Marine Mammal Science 9(1):55-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1993.tb00426.x

Weinrich, M., Martin, M., Griffiths, R., Bove, J. and Schilling, M. (1997) A shift in distribution of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in response to prey in the southern Gulf of Maine. Fishery Bulletin 95(4):826-836

Weir, C.R., Pollock, C., Cronin, C. and Taylor, S. (2001) Cetaceans of the Atlantic Frontier, north and west of Scotland. Continental Shelf Research 21:1047-1071. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0278-4343(00)00124-2

Wells, R.S., Early, G.A., Gannon, J.G., Lingenfelser, R.G. and Sweeney, P. (2008) Tagging and tracking of rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis) from the March 2005 mass stranding in the Florida Keys. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-574:1-44.

Wells, R.S., Manire, C.A., Byrd, L., Smith, D.R., Gannon, J.G., Fauquier, D. and Mullin, K.D. (2009) Movements and dive patterns of a rehabilitated Risso’s dolphin, Grampus griseus, in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Marine Mammal Science 25(2):420-429. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2008.00251.x

Whitehead, H. (1982) Populations of humpback whales in the northwest Atlantic. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 32:345-353.

Whitehead, H. and Moore, M.J. (1982) Distribution and movements of West Indian humpback whales in winter. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:2203-2211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z82-282

Wilson, C.E., Perrin, W.F., Gilpatrick, Jr., J.W. and Leatherwood, S. (1987) Summary of worldwide locality records of the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFC-90:1-65.

Winn, H.E. and Perkins, P.J. (1976) Distribution and sounds of the minke whale, with a review of mysticete sounds. Cetology 19:1-12.

Winn, H.E., Edel, R.K. and Taruski, A.G. (1975) Population estimate of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the West Indies by visual and acoustic techniques. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32(4):499-506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/f75-061

Winn, H.E., Price, C.A. and Sorensen, P.W. (1986) The distributional biology of the right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) in the western North Atlantic. Reports of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue 10):129-138.

Würsig, B., Jefferson, T.A. and Schmidly, D.J. (2000) The Marine Mammals of the Gulf of Mexico. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas, USA.

Würsig, B., Lynn, S.K., Jefferson, T.A. and Mullin, K.D. (1998) Behaviour of cetaceans in the northern Gulf of Mexico relative to survey ships and aircraft. Aquatic Mammals 24(1):41-50.

Yochem, P.K. and Leatherwood, S. (1985) Blue whale Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus, 1758). Pages 193-240 in Ridgway, S.H. and Harrison, R. (Eds) Handbook of Marine Mammals. Volume 3: The Sirenians and Baleen Whales. San Diego, California: Academic Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5597/lajam00175

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




footer_lajam_eb_540_540